Employment legislation varies from country to country, region to region, state to state, and sometimes even city to city. Wherever you have talent, our employment experts ensure you are compliant, whether you’re engaging contractors or managing payrolled workers. To learn more about a specific country, click on the country name above.
Employment relations in the Republic of Albania are governed mainly by Law no. 7961, dated 12.07.1995 "On Labor Code in the Republic of Albania" as amended (hereinafter referred to as "Albanian Labor Code"); Law no. 7703, dated 11.05.1993 "On Social Insurance in the Republic of Albania" as amended (hereinafter referred to as "Law on Social Insurance"); and other normative acts issued by the Albanian government in order to regulate different features of the employment area based on the rapid social and economical changes that occur.
Austria generally is an "at-will" employment jurisdiction with respect to the hiring of employees. Basically a legal requirement to give preference to any particular person or group of persons when hiring does not exist.
The Labor Code of the Republic of Belarus (“Labor Code”) distinguishes between employment for an indefinite term and employment for a fixed term. Moreover, the Labor Code envisages employment contracts as the principal form by which employment relationships are governed in Belarus.
Belgian law does not recognise "at-will employment." An indefinite term contract can always be terminated - even without a cause - as long as reasonable notice is given or an equivalent severance indemnity is paid.
The Bulgarian labour law (BLL) establishes the just-cause employment law system. Thus, the Bulgarian employer may unilaterally terminate the relationship with the employee only under a specific cause for termination. The causes for termination are exclusively listed in the Bulgarian Labour Code (LC).
Croatia may generally be categorised as an "at-will" employment jurisdiction. However there are a few statutory exceptions from this principle.
Cyprus law in the area of termination of employment is based on statutory provisions and their interpretation by Cyprus courts in a number of cases. On the other hand, every employment relationship is contractual in nature and, to the extent that any aspects are not regulated by specific legal provisions, basic contract law principles apply.
In the Czech Republic, issues related to labour and employment law are primarily regulated by the Labour Code, Act No. 262/2006 Coll., as amended, which became effective on January 1, 2007, and by the Employment Act No. 435/2004 Coll., as amended. The Czech Labour Code is in accordance with the International Work Organization’s international treaties on labour law and with other relevant European legislation.
Danish labour and employment law is historically, and in its main structures, based on contract law and principles. When answers are not found in employment laws or in a collective bargaining agreement, the employment agreement and ordinary rules and regulations of interpretation shall prevail.
Finland follows the civil law tradition and, therefore, Finnish law does not recognize the common law concepts of "at-will" and "just cause" as such. The Employment Contracts Act (55/2001, as amended, the "ECA") constitutes the main legal framework of Finnish labor law and sets forth the general conditions regarding the hiring of employees and the termination or rescinding of employment contracts.
In France, employment law affords employees a strong level of protection. Most statutory provisions are mandatory (a.k.a. “public order rules”), thus allowing little flexibility through contractual provisions.
The German Labor and Employment Law system is not codified in a special labor code, but can be found in various laws, including the German constitution (Grundgesetz), regulations, and collective bargaining agreements between employers, employers' associations, and unions. German Labor and Employment Law generally is intended to protect the employee.
In Gibraltar individuals are considered employees if they have entered into or work under a contract with an employer, whether the contract be for manual labour, clerical work or otherwise. The contract may be express or implied, oral or in writing and be a contract of service or a contract personally to execute any work or labour.
Greek labor and employment law is generally favorable and protective toward the employee; thus, usually the First Instance Courts (Labour Disputes Division), which rule on labour litigation, are also in favor of the employees.
In Hungary, major labor and employment issues are regulated in the Labor Code. Collective bargaining agreements and employment contracts may rule any employment issue, and may deviate from the provisions of the Labor Code only for the benefit of the employee unless the Labor Code or special law for publicly owned corporations provides otherwise. This Labor Code – in effect as of July 2012 - gives more power to the employer to deviate from its provisions for the employer’s benefit than the earlier one.
Irish law does not recognise the concept of "at will" employment in the way in which other jurisdictions such as the U.S. recognise it. In Ireland, the common law position is that an employer can dismiss an employee for any or no reason, on the giving of reasonable notice. It is the giving of notice which distinguishes it from the "at will" concept recognised in other jurisdictions.
Pursuant to Italian Law, employees have a strong protection against dismissal. The employer is allowed to dismiss the employee with immediate effect if the employee is guilty of serious misconduct, defined by Italian law as "just cause" that renders impossible the continuation of the employment relationship.
The Employment and Industrial Relations Act - Chapter 452 of the Laws of Malta (EIRA) represents Malta’s primary source of employment law, including conditions of employment, protection against discrimination and industrial relations. This statute was enacted in 2002 with a view towards consolidating the previous primary sources of employment law namely the Conditions of Employment (Regulation) Act (Chap. 135 of the Laws of Malta) and the Industrial Relations Act (Chap 266 of the Laws of Malta). This consolidation exercise also served to bring Malta’s employment law in line with European employment law.
An employment contract in the Netherlands may be agreed to orally, but is generally confirmed in writing. Collective agreements usually set rules for the required form of the contract. Employers are legally obliged to give their employees a written statement within one month of commencing employment.
The parties of the Norwegian labour market are employers, employees, employers' associations and trade unions. Established trade unions enjoy a favored status within the field of industrial relations and, under certain circumstances, have more extensive rights than individual employees. Approximately 50 per cent of the Norwegian employees are unionized.
The individual employment contract is the primary form of employment relationship regulated by the major act of Polish Labor Law, i.e., the Labor Code ("Pol. Lab. Code"). An employment contract is to be concluded in writing and must specify the parties to the contract, the type of contract, the date of its conclusion, as well as the work and remuneration conditions, and in particular: the type of work, the place of performing the work, the remuneration corresponding to the type of work, with a specification of the remuneration components, the length of working time and the date of commencing work.
Portugal is a just cause employment state. This means that the employer cannot terminate an employee's employment except in the strict situations regulated by the employment law. Employment relationships in Portugal are highly regulated. The primary source of employee rights is the Constitution, which enshrines rights such as the employee's right to strike.
Romania generally is an “at-will” employment jurisdiction with respect to the hiring of employees.
There are no laws or statutes pertaining to common law claims with respect to at-will v. just cause hiring in the Russian Federation. Refusing to conclude an employment agreement without justification is prohibited in the Russian legislation and may be challenged in court.
Labour relations in the Republic of Serbia have regulated with international and national sources.
The Slovak Labor Law system is codified in the Act No. 311/2001 Labor Code. Other important labor laws are e.g. the Act No. 125/2006 Coll. on Labor Inspection, The Act on Illegal Work and Illegal Employment and on Amendment of Certain Acts as amended by the Act No. 125/2006 Coll., Act No. 5/2004 on employment services and on amendment of certain acts (Employment Services Act), The Act No. 461/2003 on social insurance, The Act No. 2/1991 on Collective Bargaining.
Under the Spanish law employers do not have the possibility of “Employment-at-Will.” Therefore a reason for termination of the employment contract is always required. Since Spanish law is not a common law-based country, no claims for compensation can be filed other that those established in laws or by contract. There are several compensations concerning termination of employment contracts, depending on the type of contract (fixed term or indefinite) and the cause for termination (summary/disciplinary dismissal, objective dismissal, unfair dismissal, etc.).
In Sweden, employers are entitled to employ whomever they please provided that, in doing so, they do not discriminate on grounds of sex, transgender identity or expression, national or ethnic origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, age or membership of a trade union.
Swiss employment law is not codified in a special law, but is found in various statutory sources.
The following legislation mainly regulates individual and collective relations and social insurance of employees in Turkey: The Labour Law No. 4857; The Code of Obligations dated No. 6098; Social Security and General Health Insurance Law No. 5510; The Law on Trade Unions and Collective Labour Agreements No. 6356; The Law on Work Health and Safety No. 6331. Other than legislative sources, judicial sources constitute another source of the Turkish labour law. Thus, decisions of the Constitutional Court and of the Court of Appeals are major sources that help to clarify the provisions of labour legislation as well as to interpret existing legislation as to meet emerging needs.
There is a difference between a "labor agreement" and "labor contract" according to the Ukrainian law. A "labor contract" is a specific form of a written "labor agreement." In a labor contract, the resolution of certain issues (including the term of the contract and the grounds for termination of the employment relationship) may be determined by the parties, and such issues are not subject to the requirements of the Labor Code.
In the UK individuals may be either employees (who work under a contract of employment), employee shareholders, or simply workers (usually independent contractors who work and are paid as and when needed). It is important to distinguish these categories of worker as many of the statutory employment rights relate only to employees and employee shareholders, and not to workers.